Research

Faculty of Pharmacy
OverviewResearch TeamPublication
Research is the process of generating new knowledge, ideas, and technology in driving the future success of society and humanity. For university, research can bring relevant and modern curriculum, education, and training, it also fosters professional excellence in faculty. UP Faculty of Pharmacy is committed to conduct research which has regional, national and international impacts to make contributions to this fast growing world in science and technology.

Currently, the Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Puthisastra, is engaged in a wide array of pharmacognostic and pharmaceutical researches. The pharmacognostic discipline covers the domains of phytochemical analyses, ethnobotanical surveys, standardization of medicinal plants, and phytotherapeutic studies. Along with these observations, UP-Herbarium, Plant Tissue Culture Center, UP-Botanical Garden, Cambodian Medicinal Plant Museum, UP-Natural Products Library and Parasite Museum have been planned to develop on a purpose of sharpening the field of pharmacognosy and drug formulation. The pharmaceutical discipline works on pharmaceutical research and development, drug formulation and quality control of drugs. To support this, the R&D Unit and collaborations have been developed.

The faculty members of the DoP are strongly committed to conducting the research based on their specialties. The faculty members who are actively involved in research are named as follows:

1 Dr. Chea Sin research in public health, pharmacy practice, clinical pharmacy, and pharmaceutical technology
2 Mr. Chhea Sophearom research in pharmaceutical technology and public health
3 Dr. Keo Samel research in pharmacognosy, phytochemistry and natural products
4 Ms. Meng Channeth research in pharmacognosy and public health
5 Mr. Tan Chantrea research in therapeutic chemistry
6 Mr. Penh Rada research in pharmaceutical technology
7 Miss. Srey Nalen research in pharmaceuticals

Besides faculty members, part-time professors/lecturers and pharmaceutical students are also involved in conducting research based on their interests.

International Conference Research Articles
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International Conference Research Articles

Comparative study of microscopic, phytochemical, and thin layer chromatography analyses of Curcuma longa L. and Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. rhizomes of Cambodia.
Visessakseth So, Hengsovannarith Phal, Borey Hing, Seavmey Ou, Sopharath Yun, Kimyi Ry, Kimyou Lim, Sin Chea, Samell Keo November 2017, Page 178-178

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AbstractGraphical Abstract
Introduction
Curcuma longa L. (Local name: Romiet or Lmiet) and Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. (Local name: Ponlei) rhizomes have been widely used by the traditional medical practitioners for curing various illnesses such as arthritis, inflammation and muscle problems. In the field of cosmetics, these plants have been used for the improvement of skin health.
Objectives
This study aims at comparing the evaluation of microscopic cellular elements, phytochemicals and thin layer chromatography (TLC) fingerprints between the Curcuma longa L. and the Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. rhizomes cultivated in Cambodia.
Materials and Methods
The powder of Curcuma longa L. and Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. rhizomes were purchased from the local plant drugstore and authenticated by University of Puthisastra (UP)-Herbarium (C. longa: UPFPH-210019; Z. cassumunar: UPFPH-210033). The powder microscopic study was performed in accordance with the WHO protocol in 1998. The powder of these plants was extracted with methanol by using Ultrasonication-Assisted Extraction (UAE) method. The extracting yields of each plant were subjected to the phytochemical screening by using chemical tests. The TLC analysis of each plant was performed with mobile phase ratio toluene:ethanol (9:1). The TLC layouts were detected by 254-366 nm UV light and 10% of H2SO4 reagent.
Results
The powder microscopic studies of Curcuma longa L. and Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. rhizomes showed that starch granules, vessels, group of fibers, vessels associated with pigment cells, parenchyma and oleo-resin cells were present in both plant rhizomes. The starch granules in Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. rhizomes were more abundant than those of Curcuma longa L. rhizomes. The phytochemical screening unveiled the positive tests of alkaloids, tannins, steroids, terpenoids, cardiac glycosides, essential oils and resins in both plant rhizomes. The TLC layouts investigated under 254-366 nm UV light and 10% of H2SO4 reagent gave good separation with the mobile phase ratio toluene:ethanol (9:1).
Conclusion
This study provides the scientific data of cellular elements, phytoconstituents and TLC fingerprints of Cambodian Curcuma longa L. and Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. These profiles exhibit significant roles in the areas of the plant authentication and new drug isolation.This study provides the scientific data of cellular elements, phytoconstituents and TLC fingerprints of Cambodian Curcuma longa L. and Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. These profiles exhibit significant roles in the areas of the plant authentication and new drug isolation.

Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used for maternal healthcare in Mondulkiri Province, Cambodia
Sokunvary Oeung, Vissessakseth So, Sophearom Chhea, Sreynet Pheng, Sovannaroath Tang, Kimhorng Oun, Sokheang Chea, Sopheavy Chhoun, Punleu Chea, Reaksa Has, Kamyek Chao, Sin Chea, Samell Keo
November 2017, Page 140-140

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AbstractGraphical Abstract
Introduction
Woman in Mondulkiri province, Cambodia, have been using medicinal plants to cure various ailments associated with maternal healthcare for centuries; however, the use of such plants for maternal healthcare is not well documented.
Objectives
This study aimed at conducting the ethnobotanical survey on medicinal plants used for maternal healthcare in Mondulkiri province, Cambodia.
Materials and Methods
This survey is conducted from April 17 to 29, 2017 at Senmonorom City, Mondulkiri Province, Cambodia, which covers an area of 14,288 km2 located between latitude 12°27’20.99″N and longitude 107°11’17.20″E. Ethnobotanical data were obtained using a semi structured questionnaire method. The questionnaire was used to interview 8 respondents who are considered as the local traditional healers. A descriptive statistic method using frequencies and percentages was used to analyze the distribution of plant species including scientific names, plant parts, route of administration, method of preparation and treated symptoms.
Results
Medicinal plants belonging to 32 genera distributed among 25 families were documented. Most of the reported plants belong to the Fabaceae (18.18%), Anacardiaceae (6.06%), Celastraceae (6.06%) and Phyllanthaceae (6.06%) families. The most frequently used plant’s parts were wood (23.64%) and barks (23.64%), followed by roots (18.18%) and leaves (14.55%). Most of the medications were preparation as decoction (70.59%) and maceration (17.65%). The plant preparations were mostly administered orally (80.95%). Most of the reported plants are used to treat the symptoms of stomachache (13.95%), diarrhea (11.63%) and headache (8.53%).
Conclusion
This study provides the documentation of the medicinal plants used for maternal healthcare in Mondulkiri province, Cambodia. Scientific validation of the biological properties of the surveyed plants is highly recommended.

Factors associated with students deciding to study Pharmacy or Medicine at the Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Puthisastra, Cambodia
Sin Chea, Sophearom Chhea, Keo Phanha Soeung, Channeth Meng, Chantrea Khoy, Sokanha Mov, Sorida Prak, Sovannaroath Tang, Sokunvary Oeung, Voleak Nov, Voleak Yin, Huykhim Ung, Koemlin Roum, Samell Keo
November 2017, Page 22-22

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AbstractGraphical Abstract
Introduction
Most students, after being awarded with a high school diploma, have made a decision to study at health science academic institutions under various majors, particularly including Pharmacy and Medicine. However, the reasons behind this decision remain unclear.
Objectives
This study aimed to investigate the factors which make students decide to study Pharmacy (PM) or Medicine (MM) at Faculty of Health Sciences (FHS), University of Puthisastra (UP).
Materials and Methods
This study was performed via structured interviews of 138 high school graduates who submitted their application at Faculty of Health Sciences FHS, University of Puthisastra (UP). The data analysis was performed by IBM SPSS Statistics 22. The statistical technique used in the interpretation of the analysis included frequency count, arithmetic mean, median, percentage, cross tabulation, Pearson chi-square test and Independent samples t-test.
Results
The findings indicated that the enrollment number of male students accounted for 30.4% (n = 42, age in years: 19±1.65) and of female students accounted for 69.6% (n = 96, age in years: 18±1.28), which was not significantly different in ages (P > 0.05). The percentages of students who chose to study PM or MM were 78.3% (n = 108) or 21.7% (n = 30) respectively. Male and female students enrolling in PM constituted 18.5% (n = 20) and 81.5% (n = 88) respectively and in MM, 73.3% (n = 22) and 26.7% (n = 8), respectively. The students were aware of the UP through their relatives (Mean = 1.0, SD = 1.73). The students’ relatives were past or present students at UP studying in the majors of Pharmacy (42.2%, n = 19), Medicine (17.8%, n = 8), Medical Laboratory Technology (13.3%, n = 6), Nursing (11.1%, n = 5), Midwifery (11.1%, n = 5), Dentistry (2.2%, n = 1) and Information Technology (2.2%, n = 1). The students’ awareness of UP were related with their relatives studying at UP in the majors of Pharmacy, Medicine, Medical Laboratory Technology, Nursing, Midwifery and Information Technology with percentages of 39.5% (n = 15), 18.4% (n = 7), 15.8% (n = 6), 13.2% (n = 5), 10.5% (n = 4) and 2.6% (n = 1) respectively (P < 0.05). The students decided to study the majors of Pharmacy or Medicine at UP because of “Qualified Experimental Equipment for Practical Work” on an average of 2.3 (SD = 0.96) or 2.1 (SD = 1.07) respectively, finding no significant difference between majors (P > 0.05).
Conclusion
Collectively, this research finds that the major factors encouraging students to study at FHS is “Qualified Experimental Equipment for Practical Work,” and recommendation to enroll in FHS by their relatives studying in the majors of Pharmacy, Medicine, Medical Laboratory Technology, Nursing, Midwifery and Information Technology of FHS. This knowledge is of importance in formulating effective enrollment strategies in the development of Faculties of Health Sciences.

Marine phytochemical and thin layer chromatography analyses of whole body of Asterias rubens Linnaeus (Starfish) originated in Cambodia
Samell Keo, Sopheak Ann, Vouch Chheng Oun, Huykhim Ung, Chanseiha Ny, Sin Chea
March 2019, Code UPIC4IR201983

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AbstractGraphical Abstract
Introduction
Asterias rubens Linnaeus (English name: Starfish) (Khmer name: Pkai Samot) native to Cambodia has the ability to treat human inflammatory condition such as pain, arthritis, and hay fever. Moreover, it has antibacterial and antiviral activities against human bacterial pathogens including virus.
Objectives
This study aimed to determine the phytochemicals and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) profile of the whole body of Asterias rubens Linnaeus originated in Cambodia.
Materials and Methods
The dried form of Asterias rubens Linnaeus whole body was collected from the local medicinal plant drugstore, Phnom Penh, Cambodia, in February 2018. The marine body was authenticated with the voucher specimens (UPFOPMP-120002) of University of Puthisastra (UP)-Herbarium. The body was ground and subjected to the extraction with ethanol by using Maceration Extraction (ME) method. The ethanolic extracts were in turn subjected to the analyses of phytochemical constituents and TLC. These experiments were conducted at Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Puthisastra, Cambodia.
Results
The ethanolic extract of Asterias rubens Linnaeus whole body was positively tested of alkaloids, saponins and resins. The TLC analysis was evaluated with the mobile phase system of Toluene:Methanol (9:1) and investigated under 254-366 nm UV light and H2SO4, separating 14 compounds as the following Rf values 0.09, 0.11, 0.13, 016, 0.18, 0.20, 0.22, 0.24, 0.29, 0.31, 0.35, 0.44, 0.78 and 0.89.
Conclusion
It is concluded that the presence of these phytochemicals and the TLC profiling of Asterias rubens Linnaeus whole body may be responsible for the marine medicinal purpose and of benefit for the future research in term of bioactive compound identification and isolation.

Marine phytochemical and thin layer chromatography analyses of whole body of Hippocampus borboniensis Duméril (seahorse) originated in Cambodia
Samell Keo, Thary Hen, Sivmey Eang, Sodalin Ly, Huykhim Ung, Chanseiha Ny, Sin Chea
March 2019, Code UPIC4IR201986

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AbstractGraphical Abstract
Introduction
Cambodian seahorse or Hippocampus borboniensis Duméril (local name: Ses Samot) possesses anti-tumor, anti-aging, anti-fatigue, anti-prostatic hyperplasia activities and can be used for the treatment of tumor, aging, fatigue, thrombus, inflammatory, hypertension and impotence.
Objectives
This study aimed to determine the phytochemicals and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) profile of the whole body of Hippocampus borboniensis Duméril originated in Cambodia.
Materials and Methods
The dried form of Hippocampus borboniensis Duméril whole body was collected from the local medicinal plant drugstore, Phnom Penh, Cambodia, in February 2018. The marine body was authenticated with the voucher specimens (UPFOPMP-120001) of University of Puthisastra (UP)-Herbarium. The body was ground and subjected to the extraction with ethanol by using Ultrasocination-Assisted Extraction (UAE) method. The ethanolic extracts were in turn subjected to the analyses of phytochemical constituents and TLC. These experiments were conducted at the Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Puthisastra, Cambodia.
Results
The ethanolic extract of Hippocampus borboniensis Duméril whole body was positively tested of alkaloids, phenolic compounds, flavonoids and essential oils. The TLC analysis was evaluated with the mobile phase system of Toluene:Methanol (9:1) and investigated under 254-366 nm UV light and H2SO4, separating 10 compounds as the following Rf values 0.09, 0.13, 0.16, 0.39, 0.47, 0.56, 0.67, 0.80, 0.89 and 0.98.The ethanolic extract of Hippocampus borboniensis Duméril whole body was positively tested of alkaloids, phenolic compounds, flavonoids and essential oils. The TLC analysis was evaluated with the mobile phase system of Toluene:Methanol (9:1) and investigated under 254-366 nm UV light and H2SO4, separating 10 compounds as the following Rf values 0.09, 0.13, 0.16, 0.39, 0.47, 0.56, 0.67, 0.80, 0.89 and 0.98.
Conclusion
It is concluded that the presence of these phytochemicals and the TLC profiling of Hippocampus borboniensis Duméril whole body may be responsible for the marine medicinal purpose and of benefit for the future research in term of bioactive compound identification and isolation.It is concluded that the presence of these phytochemicals and the TLC profiling of Hippocampus borboniensis Duméril whole body may be responsible for the marine medicinal purpose and of benefit for the future research in term of bioactive compound identification and isolation.

Organoleptic and phytochemical analyses of different extracts of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Wall. ex Nees whole plant of Cambodia
Koemlin Roum, Sokunvary Oeung, Voleak Nov, Huykhim Ung, Voleak Yin, Sin Chea, Samell Keo
November 2017, Page 141-141

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AbstractGraphical Abstract
Introduction
Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Wall. ex Nees (Family: Acanthaceae) (Local name: Smau Phtuhs or Smau Pramat Mnuhs) has been traditionally used for the treatment of various ailments including cancer, diabetes, bronchitis, dermatitis, influenza, dysentery, dyspepsia and malaria for centuries.
Objectives
This research aims at analyzing the organoleptic features and phytochemicals of Androgaphis paniculata (Burm. f.) Wall. ex Nees native to Cambodia.
Materials and Methods
Dried whole plant of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Wall. ex Nees was obtained from the local plant drugstore and authenticated by University of Puthisastra (UP)-Herbarium (UPFPH-120012). The organoleptic features were evaluated by means of the sense organs (color, odour, taste and texture parameters). The dried plants were extracted with methanol, ethanol and chloroform. Ultrasonication-Assisted Extraction (UAE) was used as the extraction method. The extracting yields were subjected to the analysis of phytochemicals including alkaloids, saponins, phenolic compounds, tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, resins and essential oils.
Results
The organoleptic features of the dried whole plant of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Wall. ex Nees revealed that the flowers were violet streak and tubular-shaped, stem and leaves were dark green; the odour was characteristic; the taste was strongly bitter; and the texture of stem was slightly coarse. The extracting yields accounted for 10.23% (methanol extract), 1.21% (ethanol extract) and 3.30% (chloroform extract). The phytochemical analysis demonstrated the positive tests of alkaloids, saponins, terpenoids and phenolic compounds in methanol extract; of terpenoids in ethanol extract; and of alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, phenolic compounds and essential oils in chloroform extract.
Conclusion
The expression of various phytochemicals and the organoleptic feature of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Wall. ex Nees whole plant native to Cambodia provide its profiling standardization, which is beneficial for identification and authentication of plant materials, as well as making a monograph of the plant.

Organoleptic and phytochemical analyses of different extracts of Hydnophytum formicarum Jack. tubers of Cambodia
Voleak Yin, Voleak Nov, Sokunvary Oeung, Koemlin Roum, Huykhim Ung, Sin Chea, Samell Keo
November 2017, Page 184-184

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AbstractGraphical Abstract
Introduction
Hydnophytum formicarum Jack. (Family: Rubiaceae) (Local name: Mroch Sourt Damrei) is a medicinal plant which is used by traditional healers for the treatment of various ailments such as cardiovascular disease, hepatitis, rheumatism and diarrhea. This plant also exerts some therapeutic effects including anti-inflammatory, anti-parasitic and anti-oxidant activities.
Objectives
The study aims at analyzing the organoleptic features and phytochemical components of Hydnophytum formicarum Jack. native to Cambodia.
Materials and Methods
The dried Hydnophytum formicarum Jack. tubers were acquired from local plant drugstore and authenticated by University of Puthisastra (UP)-Herbarium (UPFPH-050031). The organoleptic feature was evaluated by means of sense organs such as colour, odour, taste and texture parameters. The dried plant was extracted with three solvents comprised of methanol, ethanol and chloroform. Each plant was extracted for 15 minutes at room temperature by Ultrasonication-Assisted Extraction (UAE) method. The extracting yields were subjected to the analysis of phytoconstituents including alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, tannins, terpenoids, resins and essential oils.
Results
The organoleptic study of the dried Hydnophytum formicarum Jack. indicated that the tuber was light reddish brown; the ordour was characteristic; the taste was bland; and the texture was slightly rough. The extraction yields of Hydnophytum formicarum Jack. tubers accounted for 3.28% (chloroform extract), 6.84% (methanol extract) and 7.86% (ethanol extract). The phytochemicals analysis showed the positive tests of alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids and essential oils in chloroform extract; of saponins, terpeniods and phenolic compounds in methanol extract; and of resins in ethanol extract.
Conclusion
This study authenticates the proper organoleptic features and phytochemical components of Hydnophytum formicarum Jack. native to Cambodia. These scientific data would be beneficial for the field of natural drug manufacturing in term of plant identification.

Organoleptic and phytochemical evaluation of different extracts of Orthosiphon aristatus (Blume) Miq. whole plant of Cambodia
Huykhim Ung, Voleak Nov, Voleak Yin, Sokunvary Oeung, Koemlin Roum, Sin Chea, Samell Keo
November 2017, Page 183-183

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AbstractGraphical Abstract
Introduction
Orthosiphon aristatus (Blume) Miq. (Local name: Puk Mort Chhmar) also known as cat’s whiskers or java tea is a branched herbaceous plant that belongs to Lamiaceae family. It possesses an anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, anti-microbial properties and enhances the urine flow.
Objectives
This study was conducted to evaluate the organoleptic features and phytoconstituents of Orthosiphon aristatus (Blume) Miq. native to Cambodia.
Materials and Methods
Dried whole plant of Orthosiphon aristatus (Blume) Miq. was collected from the local plant drugstore and authenticated by University of Puthisastra (UP)-Herbarium (UPFPH-050015). The organoleptic feature was evaluated by means of sense organs such as colour, odour, taste and texture parameters. The dried plant was extracted with three solvents including methanol, ethanol and chloroform. Each plant was extracted for 30 minutes at room temperature by Ultrasonication-Asssisted Extraction (UAE) method. The extracting yields were subjected to the analysis of phytochemicals comprised of alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins, phenolic compounds, resins and essential oils.
Results
The organoleptic features of the dried Orthosiphon aristatus (Blume) Miq. revealed that the leaves were greenish; the flowers were whitish; the odour was pleasant; and the texture was characteristic. The extracting yields of Orthosiphon aristatus (Blume) Miq. whole plant accounted for 4.15% (chloroform extract), 0.71% (ethanol extract) and 9.54% (methanol extract). The phytochemical evaluation of these three solvent extracts gave the positive tests of flavonoids, essential oils, alkaloids, phenolic compounds and tannins.
Conclusion
This study profiles the scientific information for the proper organoleptic features and phytoconstituents of Cambodian Orthosiphon aristatus (Blume) Miq. based on which the plant identity and purity can be authenticated.

Organoleptic and phytochemical evaluation of different extracts of Vernonia cinerea L. whole plant of Cambodia
Voleak Nov, Sokunvary Oeung, Huykhim Ung, Koemlin Roum, Voleak Yin, Sin Chea, Samell Keo
November 2017, Page 160-160

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AbstractGraphical Abstract
Introduction
Vernonia cinerea L. (Family: Compositae) (Local name: Smau Ruy) has been used as therapeutic agents exerting the effects of anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-microbial activities, and for the treatment of various illnesses including malaria, cancers, gastrointestinal disorders, asthma and liver diseases.
Objectives
The study aims at evaluating the organoleptic features and phytoconstituents of Vernonia cinerea L. native to Cambodia.
Materials and Methods
Dried whole plant of Vernonia cinerea L. was collected from the local plant drugstore and authenticated by University of Puthisastra (UP)-Herbarium (UPFPH-050011). Organoleptic evaluation was done by mean of the sense organs including color, odour, taste and texture parameters. The dried plant was extracted with five solvents including distilled water, methanol, ethanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform. Each plant was extracted for 30 min at room temperature by Ultrasonication-Assisted Extraction (UAE) method. The extracting yields were subjected to the evaluation of phytoconstituents covering alkaloids, phenolic compounds, tannins, flavonoids, steroids, triterpenoids, cardiac-glycosides, essential oils, saponins, quinones, poly-peptides and resins.
Results
Organoleptic features of the dried Vernonia cinerea L. showed that the flowers were whitish, stems and leaves were greenish; the odour was characteristic; the taste was somewhat bitter; the texture of stems were smooth, of flowers were fine and star shaped, and of leaves were slightly rough. The extracting yields of Vernonia cinerea L. whole plant with different solvents gave the values of 1.47% (aqueous extract), 1.60% (methanol extract), 1.82% (ethanol extract), 1.15% (ethyl acetate extract), 1.52% (chloroform extract). The qualitative phytochemical screening indicated the positive tests of tannins, flavonoids and polypeptides in aqueous, methanol, ethanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts of Vernonia cinerea L. whole plant.
Conclusion
This study provides the scientific data for the proper organoleptic and phytochemical standardization of Cambodian Vernonia cinerea L., which is very helpful for the plant identity and for the assessment of the purity of raw materials.